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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. Body mass index (BMI), a measurement which compares weight and height, defines people as overweight (pre-obese) if their BMI is between 25 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2, and obese when it is greater than 30 kg Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes,breathing difficulties during sleep, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive dietary calories, lack of physical activity, andgenetic susceptibility, although few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders,medications or psychiatric illness. Evidence to
support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight a slow metabolism is limited; on average obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass. Dieting and physical exercise are the mainstays of treatment for obesity. To supplement this, or in case of failure, anti-obesity drugs may be taken to reduce appetite or intragastric balloon is placed to reduce stomach volume and/or bowel length, leading to earlier satiation and reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food. inhibit fat absorption. In severe cases, surgery is performed or an Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in health problems of the adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public 21st century. Obesity is stigmatized in much of the modern world (particularly in the Western world), though it was widely perceived as a symbol of wealth and fertility at other times in history, and still is in some parts of the world.


Bariatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the causes, prevention, and treatment of obesity. The term bariatrics was created around 1965, from the Greek root bar- ("weight," as in barometer), suffix -iatr ("treatment," as in pediatrics), and suffix -ic ("pertaining to"). The field encompasses dieting, exercise and behavioral therapy approaches to weight loss, as well as pharmacotherapy and surgery. Overweight and obesity are rising medical problems of pandemic proportions. There are many detrimental health effects of obesity. Specifically, individuals with a BMI (Body Mass Index) exceeding a healthy range have a much greater risk of a wide range of medical issues. These include heart disease, diabetes, many types of cancer, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, chronic musculoskeletal problems,etc. There is also a clear effect of obesity on mortality.